most if not all the supplement sales carry a similar pattern of promotion. You get someone with a science background who recites biochemical pathways that show a particular substance is involved in some sort of function that is needed for health. From Vit C to B 12 to cofactor with magnesium and hundreds and probably thousands more
They impress the non scientist with "co factors" long chemical names and site studies that show some relationship to our health. Then they may state taking large doses of the cofactor or other chemical increases the benefit to our health over just normal doses. Or they will vary the presentation with claims that the nutrient or chemical has to be taken in a certain way with other substances and then, and lonly then we would all reap some increase benefit to our "prostate health, our cognitive health, our digestive healthy, more energy etc.
Then they find mostly obscure studies by usually second rate or no name researches who are spending grant money , trying to make some sort of name for themselves, or I even suspect are at times making up data for bribes and then publish the date and their "research" in one of the money making journals that are usually second rate or are not well monitored or peer reviewed (even that process is subject to outright fraud).
So now they cite the impressive sounding biochemistry in order to sound like they understand something that the rest of us do not and they "discovered" this chemical (s) that is found by these usually insignificant if not fraudulent studies to suggest some sort of benefit.
The chemicals are often obscure from some exotic jungle of far away ocean or island or with some claim of being the only ones who can provide in the proper purity or concentration or mix or other elixir that no one else can duplicate .
If any real scientist or doctor disputes their claim they come back with a vengeance arguing that the doctor or scientist is just threatened by this "cure" that would put the doctor or scientist out of business.
You don't have to take my word for it but the vast majority of these things , if not all , are scams. They all have similar themes with variations that play over and over again to people who are looking to stay healthy, stay young, get an edge in life, have more sexual prowess , remember more , be smarte.
There si billions to be made.
I hope I don't sound like some condescending doctor who thinks he knows it all. I don't. And I know I don't.
But even on Shark Tank when some entreprenuer came on trying to get the sharks to buy into some sort of supplement they said all the supplements are just a "con".
FWIW I agree with it.