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Author Topic: The American Creed: Our Founding Fathers:  (Read 158806 times)
Crafty_Dog
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« Reply #1250 on: March 13, 2013, 10:13:43 AM »



"If the representatives of the people betray their constituents, there is then no resource left but in the exertion of that original right of self-defense which is paramount to all positives forms of government, and which against the usurpations of the national rulers, may be exerted with infinitely better prospect of success than against those of the rulers of an individual state."
--Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 28, 1787
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« Reply #1251 on: March 21, 2013, 10:13:53 AM »

"An elective despotism was not the government we fought for; but one in which the powers of government should be so divided and balanced among the several bodies of magistracy as that no one could transcend their legal limits without being effectually checked and restrained by the others."
--James Madison, Federalist No. 58, 1788
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« Reply #1252 on: March 26, 2013, 07:17:40 AM »

"The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position."
--George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796
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« Reply #1253 on: March 28, 2013, 11:00:07 AM »

"How prone all human institutions have been to decay; how subject the best-formed and most wisely organized governments have been to lose their check and totally dissolve; how difficult it has been for mankind, in all ages and countries, to preserve their dearest rights and best privileges, impelled as it were by an irresistible fate of despotism."
--James Monroe, speech in the Virginia Ratifying Convention, 1788
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« Reply #1254 on: April 02, 2013, 05:37:36 AM »

"If our country, when pressed with wrongs at the point of the bayonet, had been governed by its heads instead of its hearts, where should we have been now? Hanging on a gallows as high as Haman's."
--Thomas Jefferson, letter to Maria Cosway, 1786
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« Reply #1255 on: April 03, 2013, 10:16:47 AM »

"They define a republic to be a government of laws, and not of men."
--John Adams, Novanglus No. 7, 1775
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« Reply #1256 on: April 04, 2013, 09:57:32 AM »

"The steady character of our countrymen is a rock to which we may safely moor; and notwithstanding the efforts of the papers to disseminate early discontents, I expect that a just, dispassionate and steady conduct, will at length rally to a proper system the great body of our country. Unequivocal in principle, reasonable in manner, we shall be able I hope to do a great deal of good to the cause of freedom & harmony."
--Thomas Jefferson, letter to Elbridge Gerry, 1801
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« Reply #1257 on: April 09, 2013, 07:30:25 AM »

"The instrument by which it [government] must act are either the AUTHORITY of the laws or FORCE. If the first be destroyed, the last must be substituted; and where this becomes the ordinary instrument of government there is an end to liberty!"
--Alexander Hamilton, Tully, No. 3, 1794
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« Reply #1258 on: April 11, 2013, 07:00:08 AM »



"Laws are made for men of ordinary understanding and should, therefore, be construed by the ordinary rules of common sense. Their meaning is not to be sought for in metaphysical subtleties which may make anything mean everything or nothing at pleasure."
--Thomas Jefferson, letter to William Johnson, 1823
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« Reply #1259 on: April 12, 2013, 11:51:46 AM »



"There is no maxim in my opinion which is more liable to be misapplied, and which therefore needs elucidation than the current one that the interest of the majority is the political standard of right and wrong.... In fact it is only reestablishing under another name and a more specious form, force as the measure of right."
--James Madison, letter to James Monroe, 1786
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Crafty_Dog
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« Reply #1260 on: April 15, 2013, 08:35:50 AM »

"Our own Country's Honor, all call upon us for a vigorous and manly exertion, and if we now shamefully fail, we shall become infamous to the whole world. Let us therefore rely upon the goodness of the Cause, and the aid of the supreme Being, in whose hands Victory is, to animate and encourage us to great and noble Actions - The Eyes of all our Countrymen are now upon us, and we shall have their blessings, and praises, if happily we are the instruments of saving them from the Tyranny mediated against them. Let us therefore animate and encourage each other, and shew the whole world, that a Freeman contending for Liberty on his own ground is superior to any slavish mercenary on earth."
--George Washington, General Orders, 1776
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Crafty_Dog
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« Reply #1261 on: April 16, 2013, 06:02:10 AM »



"History affords us many instances of the ruin of states, by the prosecution of measures ill suited to the temper and genius of their people. The ordaining of laws in favor of one part of the nation, to the prejudice and oppression of another, is certainly the most erroneous and mistaken policy. An equal dispensation of protection, rights, privileges, and advantages, is what every part is entitled to, and ought to enjoy... These measures never fail to create great and violent jealousies and animosities between the people favored and the people oppressed; whence a total separation of affections, interests, political obligations, and all manner of connections, by which the whole state is weakened."
--Benjamin Franklin, Emblematical Representations
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« Reply #1262 on: April 17, 2013, 06:47:11 AM »

"What, sir, is the use of militia? It is to prevent the establishment of a standing army, the bane of liberty... Whenever Government means to invade the rights and liberties of the people, they always attempt to destroy the militia, in order to raise an army upon their ruins."
--Elbridge Gerry, 1789
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« Reply #1263 on: April 19, 2013, 10:43:55 AM »

"Every man who loves peace, every man who loves his country, every man who loves liberty ought to have it ever before his eyes that he may cherish in his heart a due attachment to the Union of America and be able to set a due value on the means of preserving it."
--James Madison, Federalist No. 41., 1788
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« Reply #1264 on: April 23, 2013, 08:52:23 AM »

"When we assumed the Soldier, we did not lay aside the Citizen; and we shall most sincerely rejoice with you in the happy hour when the establishment of American Liberty, upon the most firm and solid foundations shall enable us to return to our Private Stations in the bosom of a free, peacefully and happy Country."
--George Washington, address to the New York Legislature, 1775
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« Reply #1265 on: April 23, 2013, 12:45:30 PM »

"We are firmly convinced, and we act on that conviction, that with nations as with individuals our interests soundly calculated will ever be found inseparable from our moral duties, and history bears witness to the fact that a just nation is trusted on its word when recourse is had to armaments and wars to bridle others."
--Thomas Jefferson, Second Inaugural Address, 1805
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« Reply #1266 on: April 24, 2013, 08:37:59 AM »

"Let us recollect that peace or war will not always be left to our option; that however moderate or unambitious we may be, we cannot count upon the moderation, or hope to extinguish the ambition of others."
--Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 34, 1788
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« Reply #1267 on: April 25, 2013, 08:42:40 AM »

"It is the madness of folly, to expect mercy from those who have refused to do justice; and even mercy, where conquest is the object, is only a trick of war; the cunning of the fox is as murderous as the violence of the wolf."
--Thomas Paine, The American Crisis, No. 1, 1776
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« Reply #1268 on: April 26, 2013, 08:08:56 AM »

"Every child in America should be acquainted with his own country. He should read books that furnish him with ideas that will be useful to him in life and practice. As soon as he opens his lips, he should rehearse the history of his own country; he should lisp the praise of liberty, and of those illustrious heroes and statesmen, who have wrought a revolution in her favor."
--Noah Webster, On the Education of Youth in America, 1788
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« Reply #1269 on: May 01, 2013, 10:45:22 AM »

"Those gentlemen, who will be elected senators, will fix themselves in the federal town, and become citizens of that town more than of your state."
--George Mason, speech in the Virginia Ratifying Convention, 1788
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« Reply #1270 on: May 02, 2013, 10:51:26 AM »



"I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would have you, and the State over which you preside, in his holy protection, that he would incline the hearts of the Citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to Government, to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another, for their fellow Citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for their brethren who have served in the Field, and finally, that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all, to do Justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that Charity, humility and pacific temper of mind, which were the Characteristicks of the Divine Author of our blessed Religion, and without an humble imitation of whose example in these things, we can never hope to be a happy Nation."
--George Washington, circular letter of farewell to the Army, 1783
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Crafty_Dog
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« Reply #1271 on: May 05, 2013, 09:40:20 PM »



Alabama 1901, Preamble We the people of the State of Alabama , invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following Constitution..
Alaska 1956, Preamble We, the people of Alaska , grateful to God and to those who founded our nation and pioneered this great land.
Arizona 1911, Preamble We, the people of the State of Arizona , grateful to Almighty God for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution...
Arkansas 1874, Preamble We, the people of the State of Arkansas , grateful to Almighty God for the privilege of choosing our own form of government...
California 1879, Preamble We, the People of the State of California , grateful to Almighty God for our freedom...
Colorado 1876, Preamble We, the people of Colorado , with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of Universe...
Connecticut 1818, Preamble. The People of Connecticut, acknowledging with gratitude the good Providence of God in permitting them to enjoy.
Delaware 1897, Preamble Through Divine Goodness all men have, by nature, the rights of worshipping and serving their Creator according to the dictates of their consciences...
Florida 1885, Preamble We, the people of the State of Florida , grateful to Almighty God for our constitutional liberty, establish this Constitution...
Georgia 1777, Preamble We, the people of Georgia , relying upon protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this Constitution...
Hawaii 1959, Preamble We , the people of Hawaii , Grateful for Divine Guidance ... Establish this Constitution.
Idaho 1889, Preamble We, the people of the State of Idaho , grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings.
Illinois 1870, Preamble We, the people of the State of Illinois, grateful to Almighty God for the civil , political and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy and looking to Him for a blessing on our endeavors.
Indiana 1851, Preamble We, the People of the State of Indiana , grateful to Almighty God for the free exercise of the right to choose our form of government.
Iowa 1857, Preamble We, the People of the St ate of Iowa , grateful to the Supreme Being for the blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him for a continuation of these blessings, establish this Constitution.
Kansas 1859, Preamble We, the people of Kansas , grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious privileges establish this Constitution.
Kentucky 1891, Preamble.. We, the people of the Commonwealth are grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties..
Louisiana 1921, Preamble We, the people of the State of Louisiana , grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties we enjoy.
Maine 1820, Preamble We the People of Maine acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe in affording us an opportunity .. And imploring His aid and direction.
Maryland 1776, Preamble We, the people of the state of Maryland , grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberty...
Massachusetts 1780, Preamble We...the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging with grateful hearts, the goodness of the Great Legislator of the Universe In the course of His Providence, an opportunity and devoutly imploring His direction
Michigan 1908, Preamble. We, the people of the State of Michigan , grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of freedom, establish this Constitution.
Minnesota, 1857, Preamble We, the people of the State of Minnesota, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty, and desiring to perpetuate its blessings:
Mississippi 1890, Preamble We, the people of Mississippi in convention assembled, grateful to Almighty God, and invoking His blessing on our work.
Missouri 1845, Preamble We, the people of Missouri , with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for His goodness . Establish this Constitution...
Montana 1889, Preamble. We, the people of Montana , grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty establish this Constitution ..
Nebraska 1875, Preamble We, the people, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom . Establish this Constitution.
Nevada 1864, Preamble We the people of the State of Nevada , grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, establish this Constitution...
New Hampshire 1792, Part I. Art. I. Sec. V Every individual has a natural and unalienable right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.
New Jersey 1844, Preamble We, the people of the State of New Jersey, grateful to Almighty God for civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing on our endeavors.
New Mexico 1911, Preamble We, the People of New Mexico, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty..
New York 1846, Preamble We, the people of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings.
North Carolina 1868, Preamble We the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for our civil, political, and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for the continuance of those...
North Dakota 1889, Preamble We , the people of North Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, do ordain...
Ohio 1852, Preamble We the people of the state of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and to promote our common.
Oklahoma 1907, Preamble Invoking the guidance of Almighty God, in order to secure and perpetuate the blessings of liberty, establish this
Oregon 1857, Bill of Rights, Article I Section 2. All men shall be secure in the Natural right, to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their consciences
Pennsylvania 1776, Preamble We, the people of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance....
Rhode Island 1842, Preamble. We the People of the State of Rhode Island grateful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing...
South Carolina, 1778, Preamble We, the people of he State of South Carolina grateful to God for our liberties, do ordain and establish this Constitution.
South Dakota 1889, Preamble We, the people of South Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberties ...
Tennessee 1796, Art. XI..III. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their conscience...
Texas 1845, Preamble We the People of the Republic of Texas, acknowledging, with gratitude, the grace and beneficence of God.
Utah 1896, Preamble Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we establish this Constitution.
Vermont 1777, Preamble Whereas all government ought to enable the individuals who compose it to enjoy their natural rights, and other blessings which the Author of Existence has bestowed on man ..
Virginia 1776, Bill of Rights, XVI Religion, or the Duty which we owe our Creator can be directed only by Reason and that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian Forbearance, Love and Charity towards each other
Washington 1889, Preamble We the People of the State of Washington, grateful to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution
West Virginia 1872, Preamble Since through Divine Providence we enjoy the blessings of civil, political and religious liberty, we, the people of West Virginia reaffirm our faith in and constant reliance upon God ...
Wisconsin 1848, Preamble We, the people of Wisconsin, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, domestic tranquility...
Wyoming 1890, Preamble We, the people of the State of Wyoming, grateful to God for our civil, political, and religious liberties, establish this Constitution...
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« Reply #1272 on: May 06, 2013, 08:26:11 AM »

This is good to see recognized in all the constitutions at the state level.    If there was a separation between man and God, it would be an artificial, man-made one.
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« Reply #1273 on: May 06, 2013, 08:44:53 AM »

"Let the American youth never forget, that they possess a noble inheritance, bought by the toils, and sufferings, and blood of their ancestors; and capacity, if wisely improved, and faithfully guarded, of transmitting to their latest posterity all the substantial blessings of life, the peaceful enjoyment of liberty, property, religion, and independence."
--Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution, 1833
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« Reply #1274 on: May 07, 2013, 07:38:45 AM »

"It is of great importance to set a resolution, not to be shaken, never to tell an untruth. There is no vice so mean, so pitiful, so contemptible; and he who permits himself to tell a lie once, finds it much easier to do it a second and a third time, till at length it becomes habitual; he tells lies without attending to it, and truths without the world's believing him. This falsehood of the tongue leads to that of the heart, and in time depraves all its good disposition."
--Thomas Jefferson, letter to Peter Carr, 1785
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« Reply #1275 on: May 08, 2013, 09:58:24 AM »

"It would reduce the whole instrument to a single phrase, that of instituting a Congress with power to do whatever would be for the good of the United States; and as they would be the sole judges of the good or evil, it would be also a power to do whatever evil they please. ... Certainly no such universal power was meant to be given them. It [the Constitution] was intended to lace them up straightly within the enumerated powers and those without which, as means, these powers could not be carried into effect."
--Thomas Jefferson, Opinion on a National Bank, 1791
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« Reply #1276 on: May 09, 2013, 08:48:51 AM »



"Illustrious examples are displayed to our view, that we may imitate as well as admire. Before we can be distinguished by the same honors, we must be distinguished by the same virtues. What are those virtues? They are chiefly the same virtues, which we have already seen to be descriptive of the American character -- the love of liberty, and the love of law. But law and liberty cannot rationally become the objects of our love, unless they first become the objects of our knowledge."
--James Wilson, Of the Study of the Law in the United States
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« Reply #1277 on: May 10, 2013, 06:41:08 AM »

"Happily for America, happily, we trust, for the whole human race, they pursued a new and more noble course. They accomplished a revolution which has no parallel in the annals of human society. They reared the fabrics of governments which have no model on the face of the globe."
--James Madison, Federalist No. 14, 1787
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« Reply #1278 on: May 13, 2013, 10:25:02 AM »

"Freedom had been hunted round the globe; reason was considered as rebellion; and the slavery of fear had made men afraid to think. But such is the irresistible nature of truth, that all it asks, and all it wants, is the liberty of appearing."
--Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, 1791
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« Reply #1279 on: May 14, 2013, 11:09:25 AM »



"The germ of dissolution of our federal government is in the constitution of the federal judiciary; an irresponsible body, (for impeachment is scarcely a scare-crow) working like gravity by night and by day, gaining a little today and a little tomorrow, and advancing its noiseless step like a thief, over the field of jurisdiction, until all shall be usurped from the States, and the government of all be consolidated into one."
--Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Charles Hammond, 1821
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« Reply #1280 on: May 15, 2013, 11:22:39 AM »

"No longer could we reflect, with generous pride, on the heroic actions of our American forefathers ... if we, but for a moment entertain the thought of giving up our liberty."
--Joseph Warren, Boston Massacre Oration, 1775
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« Reply #1281 on: May 16, 2013, 08:08:40 AM »

"There is but one straight course, and that is to seek truth and pursue it steadily."
--George Washington, letter to Edmund Randolph, 1795
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« Reply #1282 on: May 17, 2013, 12:15:06 PM »

"Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph."
--Thomas Paine, American Crisis, No. 1, 1776


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« Reply #1283 on: May 21, 2013, 07:09:15 AM »

"f the public are bound to yield obedience to laws to which they cannot give their approbation, they are slaves to those who make such laws and enforce them."
--Candidus, in the Boston Gazette, 1772
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« Reply #1284 on: May 22, 2013, 01:57:11 AM »

The Jefferson Disk:

First invented by Thomas Jefferson in 1795, this cipher did not become well-known and was independently invented by Commandant Etienne Bazeries, the conqueror of the Great Cipher, a century later. The system was used by the United States Army from 1923 until 1942 as the M-94.

The Jefferson disk, or wheel cypher as Thomas Jefferson named it, also known as the Bazeries Cylinder, is a cipher system using a set of wheels or disks, each with the 26 letters of the alphabet arranged around their edge. The order of the letters is different for each disk and is usually scrambled in some random way. Each disk is marked with a unique number. A hole in the centre of the disks allows them to be stacked on an axle. The disks are removable and can be mounted on the axle in any order desired. The order of the disks is the cipher key, and both sender and receiver must arrange the disks in the same predefined order. Jefferson's device had 36 disks. [Kahn, p. 194]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefferson_disk


Two Centuries On, a Cryptologist Cracks a Presidential Code
Unlocking This Cipher Wasn't Self-Evident; Algorithms and Educated Guesses

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124648494429082661.html

For more than 200 years, buried deep within Thomas Jefferson's correspondence and papers, there lay a mysterious cipher -- a coded message that appears to have remained unsolved. Until now.

The cryptic message was sent to President Jefferson in December 1801 by his friend and frequent correspondent, Robert Patterson, a mathematics professor at the University of Pennsylvania. President Jefferson and Mr. Patterson were both officials at the American Philosophical Society -- a group that promoted scholarly research in the sciences and humanities -- and were enthusiasts of ciphers and other codes, regularly exchanging letters about them.

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University of Pennsylvania Archives
Robert Patterson

In this message, Mr. Patterson set out to show the president and primary author of the Declaration of Independence what he deemed to be a nearly flawless cipher. "The art of secret writing," or writing in cipher, has "engaged the attention both of the states-man & philosopher for many ages," Mr. Patterson wrote. But, he added, most ciphers fall "far short of perfection."

To Mr. Patterson's view, a perfect code had four properties: It should be adaptable to all languages; it should be simple to learn and memorize; it should be easy to write and to read; and most important of all, "it should be absolutely inscrutable to all unacquainted with the particular key or secret for decyphering."

Mr. Patterson then included in the letter an example of a message in his cipher, one that would be so difficult to decode that it would "defy the united ingenuity of the whole human race," he wrote.

There is no evidence that Jefferson, or anyone else for that matter, ever solved the code. But Jefferson did believe the cipher was so inscrutable that he considered having the State Department use it, and passed it on to the ambassador to France, Robert Livingston.

The cipher finally met its match in Lawren Smithline, a 36-year-old mathematician. Dr. Smithline has a Ph.D. in mathematics and now works professionally with cryptology, or code-breaking, at the Center for Communications Research in Princeton, N.J., a division of the Institute for Defense Analyses.

A couple of years ago, Dr. Smithline's neighbor, who was working on a Jefferson project at Princeton University, told Dr. Smithline of Mr. Patterson's mysterious cipher.

Dr. Smithline, intrigued, decided to take a look. "A problem like this cipher can keep me up at night," he says. After unlocking its hidden message in 2007, Dr. Smithline articulated his puzzle-solving techniques in a recent paper in the magazine American Scientist and also in a profile in Harvard Magazine, his alma mater's alumni journal.

The "Perfect" Cipher?

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The 1801 letter from Robert Patterson to Thomas Jefferson
The code, Mr. Patterson made clear in his letter, was not a simple substitution cipher. That's when you replace one letter of the alphabet with another. The problem with substitution ciphers is that they can be cracked by using what's termed frequency analysis, or studying the number of times that a particular letter occurs in a message. For instance, the letter "e" is the most common letter in English, so if a code is sufficiently long, whatever letter appears most often is likely a substitute for "e."

Because frequency analysis was already well known in the 19th century, cryptographers of the time turned to other techniques. One was called the nomenclator: a catalog of numbers, each standing for a word, syllable, phrase or letter. Mr. Jefferson's correspondence shows that he used several code books of nomenclators. An issue with these tools, according to Mr. Patterson's criteria, is that a nomenclator is too tough to memorize.

Jefferson even wrote about his own ingenious code, a model of which is at his home, Monticello, in Charlottesville, Va. Called the wheel cipher, the device consisted of cylindrical pieces, threaded onto an iron spindle, with letters inscribed on the edge of each wheel in a random order. Users could scramble and unscramble words simply by turning the wheels.

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But Mr. Patterson had a few more tricks up his sleeve. He wrote the message text vertically, in columns from left to right, using no capital letters or spaces. The writing formed a grid, in this case of about 40 lines of some 60 letters each.

Then, Mr. Patterson broke the grid into sections of up to nine lines, numbering each line in the section from one to nine. In the next step, Mr. Patterson transcribed each numbered line to form a new grid, scrambling the order of the numbered lines within each section. Every section, however, repeated the same jumbled order of lines.

The trick to solving the puzzle, as Mr. Patterson explained in his letter, meant knowing the following: the number of lines in each section, the order in which those lines were transcribed and the number of random letters added to each line.

The key to the code consisted of a series of two-digit pairs. The first digit indicated the line number within a section, while the second was the number of letters added to the beginning of that row. For instance, if the key was 58, 71, 33, that meant that Mr. Patterson moved row five to the first line of a section and added eight random letters; then moved row seven to the second line and added one letter, and then moved row three to the third line and added three random letters. Mr. Patterson estimated that the potential combinations to solve the puzzle was "upwards of ninety millions of millions."


THOMAS JEFFERSON

After explaining this in his letter, Mr. Patterson wrote, "I presume the utter impossibility of decyphering will be readily acknowledged."

Undaunted, Dr. Smithline decided to tackle the cipher by analyzing the probability of digraphs, or pairs of letters. Certain pairs of letters, such as "dx," don't exist in English, while some letters almost always appear next to a certain other letter, such as "u" after "q".

To get a sense of language patterns of the era, Dr. Smithline studied the 80,000 letter-characters contained in Jefferson's State of the Union addresses, and counted the frequency of occurrences of "aa," "ab," "ac," through "zz."

Dr. Smithline then made a series of educated guesses, such as the number of rows per section, which two rows belong next to each other, and the number of random letters inserted into a line.

To help vet his guesses, he turned to a tool not available during the 19th century: a computer algorithm. He used what's called "dynamic programming," which solves large problems by breaking puzzles down into smaller pieces and linking together the solutions.

The overall calculations necessary to solve the puzzle were fewer than 100,000, which Dr. Smithline says would be "tedious in the 19th century, but doable."

After about a week of working on the puzzle, the numerical key to Mr. Patterson's cipher emerged -- 13, 34, 57, 65, 22, 78, 49. Using that digital key, he was able to unfurl the cipher's text:

"In Congress, July Fourth, one thousand seven hundred and seventy six. A declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. When in the course of human events..."

That, of course, is the beginning -- with a few liberties taken -- to the Declaration of Independence, written at least in part by Jefferson himself. "Patterson played this little joke on Thomas Jefferson," says Dr. Smithline. "And nobody knew until now."

Write to Rachel Emma Silverman at rachel.silverman@wsj.com
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« Reply #1285 on: May 22, 2013, 01:58:52 AM »

This article is a 3 page article, probably better to read it at the direct link as it includes examples of how it was used.

Jefferson's Cipher for Lewis
http://lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=2222
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« Reply #1286 on: May 22, 2013, 05:35:59 AM »

"The propriety of a law, in a constitutional light, must always be determined by the nature of the powers upon which it is founded."
--Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 33, 1788
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« Reply #1287 on: May 24, 2013, 07:28:49 PM »


"No experiment can be more interesting than that we are now trying, and which we
trust will end in establishing the fact, that man may be governed by reason and
truth. Our first object should therefore be, to leave open to him all the avenues to
truth. The most effectual hitherto found, is the freedom of the press. It is,
therefore, the first shut up by those who fear the investigation of their actions."

--Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Tyler, 1804
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« Reply #1288 on: May 27, 2013, 08:35:51 AM »


"Honor, justice, and humanity, forbid us tamely to surrender that freedom which we
received from our gallant ancestors, and which our innocent posterity have a right
to receive from us. We cannot endure the infamy and guilt of resigning succeeding
generations to that wretchedness which inevitably awaits them if we basely entail
hereditary bondage on them."

--Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms, 1775
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« Reply #1289 on: May 28, 2013, 05:46:33 PM »

"[W]here there is no law, there is no liberty; and nothing deserves the name of law
but that which is certain and universal in its operation upon all the members of the
community."

--Benjamin Rush, Letter to David Ramsay, 1788
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« Reply #1290 on: May 29, 2013, 10:06:16 PM »

"In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind
him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution."

--Thomas Jefferson, fair copy of the drafts of the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798
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« Reply #1291 on: May 30, 2013, 07:19:03 AM »


"The almost general mediocrity of fortune that prevails in America obliging its
people to follow some business for subsistence, those vices, that arise usually from
idleness, are in a great measure prevented. Industry and constant employment are
great preservatives of the morals and virtue of a nation. Hence bad examples to
youth are more rare in America, which must be a comfortable consideration to
parents. To this may be truly added, that serious religion, under its various
denominations, is not only tolerated, but respected and practiced."

--Benjamin Franklin, Information to Those Who Would Remove to America, 1782
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« Reply #1292 on: June 01, 2013, 09:25:12 AM »

"Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been
and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the
pursuit."

--James Madison, Federalist No. 51, 1788

"No experiment can be more interesting than that we are now trying, and which we
trust will end in establishing the fact, that man may be governed by reason and
truth. Our first object should therefore be, to leave open to him all the avenues to
truth. The most effectual hitherto found, is the freedom of the press. It is,
therefore, the first shut up by those who fear the investigation of their actions."

--Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Tyler, 1804
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« Reply #1293 on: June 03, 2013, 06:38:51 AM »

"No country can be called free which is governed by an absolute power; and it
matters not whether it be an absolute royal power or an absolute legislative power,
as the consequences will be the same to the people."

--Thomas Paine, Four Letters on Interesting Subjects, 1776
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« Reply #1294 on: June 05, 2013, 01:03:00 PM »

"On the other hand, the duty imposed upon him [the president] to take care, that the
laws be faithfully executed, follows out the strong injunctions of his oath of
office, that he will "preserve, protect, and defend the constitution." The great
object of the executive department is to accomplish this purpose; and without it, be
the form of government whatever it may, it will be utterly worthless for offence, or
defence; for the redress of grievances, or the protection of rights; for the
happiness, or good order, or safety of the people."

--Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution, 1833

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« Reply #1295 on: June 13, 2013, 05:40:49 AM »

"I suppose, indeed, that in public life, a man whose political principles have any
decided character and who has energy enough to give them effect must always expect
to encounter political hostility from those of adverse principles."

--Thomas Jefferson, letter to Richard M. Johnson, 1808

"The most perfect freedom consists in obeying the dictates of right reason, and
submitting to natural law. When a man goes beyond or contrary to the law of nature
and reason, he becomes the slave of base passions and vile lusts; he introduces
confusion and disorder into society, and brings misery and destruction upon himself.
This, therefore, cannot be called a state of freedom, but a state of the vilest
slavery and the most dreadful bondage. The servants of sin and corruption are
subjected to the worst kind of tyranny in the universe. Hence we conclude that where
licentiousness begins, liberty ends."

--Samuel West, On the Right to Rebel Against Governors, 1776


« Last Edit: June 13, 2013, 05:43:16 AM by Crafty_Dog » Logged
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« Reply #1296 on: June 15, 2013, 05:12:35 AM »

"The fore horse of this frightful team is public debt. Taxation follow that, and in
its turn wretchedness and oppression."

--Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Samuel Kerchival, 1816
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« Reply #1297 on: June 16, 2013, 01:13:07 PM »

"If the federal government should overpass the just bounds of its authority and make
a tyrannical use of its powers, the people, whose creature it is, must appeal to the
standard they have formed, and take such measures to redress the injury done to the
Constitution as the exigency may suggest and prudence justify."

--Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 33, 1788

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bigdog
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« Reply #1298 on: June 16, 2013, 07:27:45 PM »

"If the federal government should overpass the just bounds of its authority and make
a tyrannical use of its powers, the people, whose creature it is, must appeal to the
standard they have formed, and take such measures to redress the injury done to the
Constitution as the exigency may suggest and prudence justify."

--Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 33, 1788



More from Hamilton: http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/06/william-galston-on-the-nsa-controversies
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« Reply #1299 on: June 18, 2013, 10:04:19 AM »

"The truth is, that, even with the most secure tenure of office, during good behavior, the danger is not, that the judges will be too firm in resisting public opinion, and in defence of private rights or public liberties; but, that they will be ready to yield themselves to the passions, and politics, and prejudices of the day."
--Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution, 1833
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