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Author Topic: Earthquake Safety  (Read 844 times)
maija
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Posts: 299


« on: March 11, 2010, 06:26:29 PM »

Interesting piece:
 EXTRACT FROM DOUG COPP'S ARTICLE ON THE 'TRIANGLE OF LIFE'

My name is Doug Copp. I am the Rescue Chief and Disaster Manager of the
American Rescue Team International (ARTI), the world's most experienced
rescue team. The information in this article will save lives in an
earthquake.

I have crawled inside 875 collapsed buildings, worked with rescue teams
from 60 countries, founded rescue teams in several countries, and I am
a member of many rescue teams from many countries.

I was the United Nations expert in Disaster Mitigation for two years. I
have worked at every major disaster in the world since 1985, except
for simultaneous disasters.

The first building I ever crawled inside of was a school in Mexico City
during the 1985 earthquake. Every child was under its desk. Every child
was crushed to the thickness of their bones. They could have survived
by lying down next to their desks in the aisles. It was obscene,
unnecessary and I wondered why the children were not in the aisles. I
didn't at the time know that the children were told to hide under
something. I am amazed that even today schools are still using the
"Duck and Cover" instructions- telling the children to squat under
their desks with their heads bowed and covered with their hands. This
was the technique used in the Mexico City school.

Simply stated, when buildings collapse, the weight of the ceilings
falling upon the objects or furniture inside crushes these objects,
leaving a space or void next to them. This space is what I call the
'triangle of life'. The larger the object, the stronger, the less i t
will compact. The less the object compacts, the larger the void, the
greater the probability that the person who is using this void for
safety will not be injured. The next time you watch collapsed
buildings, on television, count the 'triangles' you see formed. They
are everywhere. It is the most common shape, you will see, in a
collapsed building.

TIPS FOR EARTHQUAKE SAFETY

1) Almost everyone who simply 'ducks and covers' when buildings
collapse ARE CRUSHED TO DEATH. People who get under objects, like desks
or cars, are crushed.

2) Cats, dogs and babies often naturally curl up in the fetal position.
You should too in an earthquake. It is a natural safety/survival
instinct. That position helps you survive in a smaller void. Get next
to an object, next to a sofa, next to a large bulky object that will
compress slightly but leave a void next to it.

3) Wooden buildings are the safest type of construction to be in during
an earthquake. Wood is flexible and moves with the force of the
earthquake. If the wooden building does collapse, large survival voids
are created. Also, the wooden building has less concentrated, crushing
weight. Brick buildings will break into individual bricks. Bricks will
cause many injuries but less squashed bodies than concrete slabs.
Concrete slab buildings are the most dangerous during an earthquake.

4) If you are in bed during the night and an earthquake occurs, simply
roll off the bed. A safe void will exist around the bed. Hotels can
achieve a much greater survival rate in earthquakes, simply by posting
a sign on the back of the door of every room telling occupants to lie
down on the floor, next to the bottom of the bed during an earthquake.

5) If an earthquake happens and you cannot easily escape by getting out
the door or window, then lie down and curl up in the fetal position
next to a sofa, or large chair.

6) Almost everyone who gets under a doorway when buildings collapse is
killed. How? If you stand under a doorway and the doorjamb falls
forward or backward you will be crushed by the ceiling above. If the
door jam falls sideways you will be cut in half by the doorway. In
either case, you will be killed!

7) Never go to the stairs. The stairs have a different 'moment of
frequency (they swing separately from the main part of the building).
The stairs and remainder of the building continuously bump into each
other until structural failure of the stairs takes place. The people
who get on stairs before they fail are chopped up by the stair treads ?
horribly mutilated. Even if the building doesn't collapse, stay away
from the stairs. The stairs are a likely part of the building to be
damaged. Even if the stairs are not collapsed by the earthquake, they
may collapse later when overloaded by fleeing people. They should
always be checked for safety, even when the rest of the building is not
damaged.


Cool Get Near the Outer Walls Of Buildings Or Outside Of Them If Possible
- It is much better to be near the outside of the building rather than
the interior. The farther inside you are from the outside perimeter of
the building the greater the probability that your escape route will be
blocked.

9) People inside of their vehicles are crushed when the road above
falls in an earthquake and crushes their vehicles; which is exactly
what happened with the slabs between the decks of the Nimitz Freeway.
The victims of the San Francisco earthquake all stayed inside of their
vehicles. They were all killed. They could have easily survived by
getting out and lying in the fetal position next to their vehicles.
Everyone killed would have survived if they had been able to get out of
their cars and sit or lie next to them. All the crushed cars had voids
3 feet high next to them, except for the cars that had columns fall
directly across them.

10) I discovered, while crawling inside of collapsed newspaper offices
and other offices with a lot of paper, that paper does not compact.
Large voids are found surrounding stacks of paper.

In 1996 we made a film, which proved my survival methodology to be
correct. The Turkish Federal Government, City of Istanbul , University
of Istanbul Case Productions and ARTI cooperated to film this
practical, scientific test. We collapsed a school and a home with 20
mannequins inside. Ten mannequins did 'duck and cover,' and ten
mannequins I used in my 'triangle of life' survival method. After the
simulated earthquake collapse we crawled through the rubble and entered
the building to film and document the results.

The film, in which I practiced my survival techniques under directly
observable, scientific conditions, relevant to building collapse,
showed there would have been zero percent survival for those doing duck
and cover.

There would likely have been 100 percent survivability for people using
my method of the 'triangle of life.' This film has been seen by
millions of viewers on television in Turkey and the rest of Europe, and
it was seen in the USA , Canada and Latin America on the TV program
Real TV.

Spread the word and save someone's life... The entire world is
experiencing natural calamities so be prepared!
Logged

It will seem difficult at first, but everything is difficult at first.
Miyamoto Musashi.
sting
Power User
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Posts: 290


« Reply #1 on: March 11, 2010, 07:03:09 PM »

Excellent post.  I  spent 17 days (January 2006) in the aftermath of the Kashmir Earthquake of October 2005 as a relief volunteer, walking through the rubble of towns (e.g. Balakot) that were leveled into permanent oblivion. It will be difficult to overcome some of the past recommendations on earthquake safety.  In walking through smaller buildings with collapsed roofs, I was pulled aside many times to be shown that the doorsills were intact.  Over and over, I was shown that the safest place to stand in an earthquake was in the doorway.  Evidently, such a position will keep one safe from a collapsing roof of a single story building and possibly the floors of a 2-3 story building.  Since most houses around the world have no more than two floors, perhaps such advice is still sound.   I did see five story government offices, hospitals, schools and hotels leveled to little more than the sum of the thickness of all floors.  In such cases, the doors were crushed as well.
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Go Shin Jutsu Kenpo (Prof. Richard Lewis)
3rd Degree Black Belt Instructor

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maija
Power User
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Posts: 299


« Reply #2 on: March 12, 2010, 02:18:37 PM »

The guy that originally found this article has done a bit more research apparently and also come up with these to go alongside ... I guess a wide circle of research is a good idea in this day and age -
http://www.bpaonline.org/Emergencyprep/arc-on-doug-copp.html
And
http://www.earthquakecountry.info/dropcoverholdon/Petal_on_Copp.pdf
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It will seem difficult at first, but everything is difficult at first.
Miyamoto Musashi.
Rarick
Guest
« Reply #3 on: March 13, 2010, 06:24:36 AM »

Doh!  Basically there is no safe place inside a building during an earthquake, all you can do is mitigate your risks.  Overhead cover with serious crushing resistance are the qualities to look for?  That is my understanding of the discussion. Overhead cover to protect from falling objects and plaster chunks, crushing resistance to save you from collapsing structure.  Your 72 hour kit would have to have similar protection too, wouldn't it?

A plan, any plan made ahead of time is better than no plan too.
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